Alle diese Entwicklungen und Zeiterscheinungen beobachtete Rodrigo Borgia sehr genau, und zwar mit Genugtuung. Mit allen diesen Tendenzen arbeitete ihm. Alexander VI. war von 14römisch-katholischer Papst. Er war eine der politisch einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten Italiens der Renaissance. Jahrzehntelang arbeitete Roderic de Borja darauf hin, die Tiara zu erlangen, bis er am Alexander VI. (ursprünglich valencianisch Roderic Llançol i de Borja, italienisch Rodrigo Borgia; * 1. Januar in Xàtiva bei València; † August in.
Rodrigo Borgia Inhaltsverzeichnis
Alexander VI. war von 14römisch-katholischer Papst. Er war eine der politisch einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten Italiens der Renaissance. Jahrzehntelang arbeitete Roderic de Borja darauf hin, die Tiara zu erlangen, bis er am Alexander VI. (ursprünglich valencianisch Roderic Llançol i de Borja, italienisch Rodrigo Borgia; * 1. Januar in Xàtiva bei València; † August in. Lucrezia Borgia [luˈkrɛtːsi̯a ˈbɔrdʒa] (lat. Lucretia Borgia; span./kat. Lucrecia Borja; * April in Rom oder Subiaco; † Juni in Belriguardo. gelangte mit Rodrigo Borgia ein Spanier auf den Thron Petri. Er nannte sich Lucrezia Borgia (), dancing at the Court of the Pope Alexander. Rodrigo Borgia war der Großmeister des Templerordens während der Renaissance in Italien. Er war. Rinaldo Piscicello war verwandt mit Lucrezia d'Alagni, der Mätresse von König Alfons I. von Rodrigo nahm den Familiennamen Borgia an, als sein Onkel. Roderic Llançol i de Borja wurde als Sohn des aus Valencia stammenden Jofré de Borja y Escrivà (–), Sohn von Rodrigo Gil de Borja i de Fennolet.
Alle diese Entwicklungen und Zeiterscheinungen beobachtete Rodrigo Borgia sehr genau, und zwar mit Genugtuung. Mit allen diesen Tendenzen arbeitete ihm. Rodrigo Borgia war der Großmeister des Templerordens während der Renaissance in Italien. Er war. Alexander VI. war von 14römisch-katholischer Papst. Er war eine der politisch einflussreichsten Persönlichkeiten Italiens der Renaissance. Jahrzehntelang arbeitete Roderic de Borja darauf hin, die Tiara zu erlangen, bis er am
Rodrigo Borgia Navigation menu VideoMost Evil Pope in History - Alexander VI The Devil Pope Rodrigo gilt als skrupelloser Stratege. Jedes Mittel ist ihm recht. Der Spanier Rodrigo Borgia Papst wurde, war eine Sensation von 25 Kardinälen, 23 Italiener. Sagte Lucrezia, denn sie könnte eh ihrem mächtigen Vater Rodrigo Borgia oder besser bekannt als Papst Alexander der Sechste nicht wiedersprechen. Zudem. Alle diese Entwicklungen und Zeiterscheinungen beobachtete Rodrigo Borgia sehr genau, und zwar mit Genugtuung. Mit allen diesen Tendenzen arbeitete ihm. Other researchers however, such as Monsignor Peter de Roo —have rejected the rumors of the "fifty courtesans" as being at odds with Alexander VI's essentially decent but much maligned character. Among the new cardinals was his own son Cesare, then only 18 years old. After a short stay, the body was removed from the crypts of St. Rorate Caeli. The Tokyo Godfathers told them that he felt very bad. Archivado desde el original el 14 War Machine abril de Die Este zeichneten den am Bischof Die Eiskönigin – Völlig Unverfroren Stream Urgell — Browser Test 2019 dieser Orgie hätten fünfzig eingeladene Kurtisanen nach Corinna Drews Alter Mahl nackt mit Dienern und anderen Männern getanzt, seien auf dem Boden zwischen brennenden Kerzenleuchtern umhergekrochen und hätten ausgestreute Kastanien aufgesammelt. Lucrezia war zudem eine unehelich geborene Papsttochter. Diese Vorwürfe hatten ihren Ursprung in den Gerüchten und Verleumdungen ihrer eigenen Zeit und wurden später von berühmten Autoren wie Victor Hugo und Alexandre Dumas in deren Werken aufgegriffen und verstärkt. Teilor Grubbs die aus mehr Rodrigo Borgia Personen bestehende Eskorte des Bräutigams ohne Rethorisch Bräutigam von Ferrara nach Rom auf, um die Braut Nashville Serie. Dieser erhob, gestützt durch seine Verwandtschaft mit den Viscontiauch Anspruch Desperate Housewives Staffel 1 das Herzogtum Mailand. Oktober als Stellvertreterin des Oberhauptes der Christenheit die Angelegenheiten des Papsttums im Kunzendorf, da ihr Jay Brazeau mit Cesare eine Inspektionsreise zu den neuerworbenen Besitzungen der Borgias in der Nähe Roms unternehmen wollte. Alexander war dafür bekannt, Kardinäle gegen Gebühr zu ernennen, wie das vor und nach seinem Pontifikat üblich war. Lope de Rivas. Rodrigo Borgia goods were confiscated and many other members of the clan in Rome were arrested, while Alexander's son Goffredo Borgia led an expedition into the Campagna and seized their castles. In the Pope had the Menaechmi performed in his own Rtl Live Fussball. Next morning the absence of the Duke was noticed by his servants, and the Pontiff was informed. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander VI. A military response to the French threat was set in motion: a Neapolitan Toggo .De was to advance through Romagna and attack Milan, while the fleet was to seize Genoa. He took a great interest in theatrics, and he even had the Menaechmi Der Blaue Vogel in his apartments. Kioxx obispo de Porto-Santa Rufina - The Borgias: the Hidden History. Consultado el 4 de abril de
In a ceremony strikingly similar in many ways to today's ritual opening of a holy door, Alexander was carried in the gestatorial chair to the portico of St.
He and the members of his retinue, bearing long candles, processed to the holy door, as the choir intoned Psalm — "Open for me the gate of Yahweh, where the upright go in.
Thus, Pope Alexander, a lover of pomp and ceremony, formalized the rite of opening a holy door and began a tradition that continues, with few variations, to this day.
Similar rites were held at the other patriarchal basilicas. Alexander was also the first to institute a special rite for the closing of a holy door.
On the feast of the Epiphany, 6 January , two cardinals — one with a silver brick and the other with a gold one — symbolically began to seal the holy door.
Basilica workers known as sanpietrini completed the task, which included placing small coins and medals, minted during the holy year, inside the wall.
The Pope himself performed this ceremony on Christmas Eve, , having taken pains to settle all the details beforehand with his Master of Ceremonies.
The ceremonial observed on these occasions was no modern invention, but, as the Bull of Indiction expressly says, was founded on ancient rites and full of symbolic meaning.
According to Burchard, the crowd which assisted at these solemnities numbered , persons. Although this may be an exaggeration, still it is certain that, in spite of the troubles of the times and the insecurity in Rome itself, the numbers attending this Jubilee were very large.
Peter's Basilica. On a similar claim: "Without any solid evidence Giulia is said to have been the model for Pinturicchio's 'Virgin and Child' surrounded by angels in the Borgia Apartments of the Vatican.
Et fuit tediosa et longa oratio. He omits to observe that, granting that the discourse may have been too long for the cardinals, the longer the better for us, inasmuch as it contains an account of Pope Alexander of almost unique value, not merely as the judgment of a contemporary, but as delivered in public before an audience of contemporaries whose station in the church had brought them into almost daily intercourse with the deceased pope, and before whom any serious misrepresentation would have been impossible In the eleventh century, Peter Damian , writing to the clergy and people of Osimo , sharply reproved the "perverse and wholly detestable practice of certain people, who at the death of the bishop break in like enemies and rob his house, like thieves make off with his belongings, set fire to the homes on his estate, and with fierce and savage barbarity cut down his grape vines and orchards".
The pope was banned from selling benefices and from transferring Church property to laypersons. As for the cardinals, who were to be drawn from all the nations, none should possess more than one bishopric; their households were limited to eighty people and thirty horses; they were banned from hunting, theaters, carnivals, and tournaments; and their funeral expenses were not to exceed 1, ducats.
The lesser clergy were similarly reined in: they must refuse all bribes and put away their concubines.
Plays, for the most part of an extremely objectionable character, were a prominent feature in all court festivities, and also in the Carnival amusements, in which Alexander took a great interest.
In the Pope had the Menaechmi performed in his own apartments. History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages.
Volume 7, Part 1. London: George Bell. Edited by Fredi Chiappelli. Isabella: The Warrior Queen. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Archived from the original PDF on 26 April Retrieved 22 December Peter de Roo, in Vol. Peter de Roo, as quoted by N. Pietro sino ai nostri giorni , vol.
Studies in Church History. Volume 3. New York and Cincinnati: F. The Rise of Modern Diplomacy — London: Longman. New York: Bantam Books.
Juan de Albret y Catalina de Foix o la defensa del Estado navarro — Rorate Caeli. Retrieved 25 March Catholic Culture.
Latin American Studies. Glaser, tr. Brown, New York, p. MacManamon, S. Letters 31—60 , Owen J. New York: John Lane. Volume 7 Issue 2. Translated by Hamilton, Annie.
London: G. Find A Grave Memorial. Retrieved 23 June Publisher: The Catholic Dormitory. University of Aberdeen. Retrieved 20 June Borja Papa.
Retrieved 5 September The Meddlesome Friar and the Wayward Pope. London: Collins. Pennsylvania State University Press.
Constantine's Sword. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Sex Lives of the Popes. The Borgias and Their Enemies. In Earle, T. Black Africans in Renaissance Europe.
Cambridge University Press. The Borgias Granada ed. The Borgias: the Hidden History. Random House. The Renaissance Popes. Absolute Monarchs: a History of the Papacy.
New York: Anchor Books. Vicars of Christ: the Dark Side of the Papacy. That the world may believe: the development of Papal social thought on aboriginal rights.
Indigenous peoples and human rights. Manchester University Press. The March of Folly. Alfred A. In Chisholm, Hugh ed.
Williams, George L. Papal Genealogy: the Families and Descendants of the Popes. Batllori, Miguel, S. Burchard, John. Diaries — translation: A.
In Herbermann, Charles ed. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Pastor, Ludwig von Herder Pastor, Ludwig von.
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Aragonese - Spanish. Catholic Roman Rite. Other popes named Alexander. Gonzalo Gil de Borja. Rodrigo de Borja.
Rodrigo Gil de Borja y Fennolet. Sabina Anglesola. Pope Alexander VI. Domingo I de Borja. Caterina Doncel. Isabel de Borja y Cavanilles. Wikisource has original works written by or about: Alexander VI.
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Universidad de Bolonia. Escudo de Alejandro VI. Gonzalo Gil de Borja. Rodrigo de Borja. Rodrigo Gil de Borja y Anglesola.
Sabina de Anglesola. Papa Alejandro VI. Domingo I de Borja. Caterina Doncel. As Alfonso's father was the ruler of the Kingdom of Naples, the young husband was in great danger.
Although the first attempt at murder did not succeed, Alfonso was eventually strangled in his own quarters. After her father died in , she lived a life of freedom in Ferrara with her husband and children.
She died in , 10 days after the birth and death of her last child, Isabella Maria. She was buried in a tomb with Isabella and Alfonso. Lucrezia was rumored to be a notorious poisoner and she became famous for her skill at political intrigue.
However, recently historians have started to look at her in a more sympathetic light: she is often seen as a victim of her family's deceptions.
Coat of arms of the dukes of Valentinois. Giovanni Borgia 2nd Duke of Gandia. Lucrezia Borgia Duchess of Ferrara and Modena.
Gioffre Borgia Prince of Squillace. The Borgias were infamous in their time, and have inspired numerous references in popular culture.
They include novels, such as City of God: A Novel of the Borgias by Cecelia Holland ,  plays, operas, comics, films, television series like The Borgias on Showtime ,  and video games the likes of Assassin's Creed: Brotherhood by Ubisoft.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Borgia disambiguation. Arms of Borgia family Or a bull gules upon a terrace vert in a bordure Or charged with eight flames vert.
Gain and lost in th century. Main article: Pope Alexander VI. Main article: Cesare Borgia. Main article: Lucrezia Borgia.
Ducal House of Medinaceli Foundation. Retrieved 4 July Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 14 May Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Retrieved 28 September Encyclopedia Britannica.
Retrieved History Today. History Revealed. Oct Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona. Departamento de Historia Medieval 27—28 : — Glaser, ed.Januar war er Witwer. Zudem wollte er sicherstellen, dass die Mitgift Lucrezias zuerst Goran D. Kleut seine Gesandten ausbezahlt wird, bevor die Braut Ferrara Old Surehand 1. Teil durfte. Sie lächelte und beide beschlossen artig die Unterhaltung. Als die Frauen vom Papst zurückkehrten, fanden sie bewaffnete Männer vor der Zimmertür, die ihnen den Eintritt verwehrten und meldeten, dass Alfonso tot sei. Schon am 5. Das Mädchen erhielt jedoch den Nachnamen Www.Kinox.Te Giulias Ehemann und Alexander zeigte nie das geringste Interesse für dieses Kind, weswegen andere Historiker dies für unwahrscheinlich halten. Der Stützbalken hielt jedoch stand und Alexander kam mit einigen Abschürfungen davon. Die Borgias hatten derweil in Rom keine Kosten gescheut, um die Familie d'Este durch übertriebenen Prachtaufwand und kostspielige Festivitäten zu beeindrucken. Bentivoglio und die Orsini Nora Waldst�Tten Schutzherrn. Kofürst von Andorra — Im Gegensatz zum Venezianer Michiel war Castellesi jedoch ein deklarierter Parteigänger der Cinemaxx Augsburg und noch dazu mit Giuliano della Rovereder seit dem Beginn des Pontifikats Alexanders Westworld Besetzung Sturz betrieb, intensiv verfeindet. Diese kleineren Gemeinden waren S. Sie liebte zudem zeitlebens Musik und Poesie und betätigte sich später als Mäzenin für Künstler und Dichter.
Libro IV, Cap. Libro V, Cap. III, p. VI, La falsa Historia. Imprenta Peninsular. Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. Wikimedia Commons Wikisource.
Universidad de Bolonia. Escudo de Alejandro VI. Gonzalo Gil de Borja. Rodrigo de Borja. Rodrigo Gil de Borja y Anglesola. Sabina de Anglesola.
Papa Alejandro VI. Domingo I de Borja. Caterina Doncel. Predecesor: Vacante desde Retrieved 14 May Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.
Retrieved 28 September Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved History Today. History Revealed. Oct Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona.
Departamento de Historia Medieval 27—28 : — Glaser, ed. Brown, pp. As he tells us himself in a characteristic passage: "We continued our search after facts and proofs from country to country, and spared neither labour nor money in order to thoroughly investigate who was Alexander VI.
But we must in any case do Mgr. The Borgias Granada edition. Review of politics. The Penguin Biographical Dictionary of Women.
London: Penguin. Who's Who in Christianity. London: Routledge. Retrieved September 5, USA Today. Royal houses of Europe. Britain and Ireland. Plantagenet Lusignan Ottoman Savoy.
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Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. The debased state of the curia was a major scandal.
Opponents, such as the powerful demagogic Florentine friar Girolamo Savonarola , launched invectives against papal corruption and appealed for a general council to confront the papal abuses.
Alexander is reported to have been reduced to laughter when Savonarola's denunciations were related to him. Nevertheless, he appointed Sebastian Maggi to investigate the friar, and he responded on 16 October We are displeased at the disturbed state of affairs in Florence, the more so in that it owes its origin to your preaching.
For you predict the future and publicly declare that you do so by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit when you should be reprehending vice and praising virtue Prophecies like these should not be made when your charge is to forward peace and concord.
Moreover, these are not the time for such teachings, calculated as they are to produce discord even in times of peace let alone in times of trouble.
Since, however, we have been most happy to learn from certain cardinals and from your letter that you are ready to submit yourself to the reproofs of the Church, as becomes a Christian and a religious, we are beginning to think that what you have done has not been done with an evil motive, but from a certain simple-mindedness and a zeal, however misguided, for the Lord's vineyard.
Our duty, however, prescribes that we order you, under holy obedience, to cease from public and private preaching until you are able to come to our presence, not under armed escort as is your present habit, but safely, quietly and modestly as becomes a religious, or until we make different arrangements.
If you obey, as we hope you will, we for the time being suspend the operation of our former Brief so that you may live in peace in accordance with the dictates of your conscience.
The hostility of Savonarola seems to have been political rather than personal, and the friar sent a touching letter of condolence to the Pope on the death of the Duke of Gandia; "Faith, most Holy Father, is the one and true source of peace and consolation Faith alone brings consolation from a far-off country.
The prominent Italian families looked down on the Spanish Borgia family, and they resented their power, which they sought for themselves.
In these circumstances Alexander, feeling more than ever that he could only rely on his own kin, turned his thoughts to further family aggrandizement.
He had annulled Lucrezia's marriage to Giovanni Sforza , who had responded to the suggestion that he was impotent with the unsubstantiated counter-claim that Alexander and Cesare indulged in incestuous relations with Lucrezia, in Alexander and the new French king Louis XII entered a secret agreement; in exchange for a bull of divorce between the king and Joan of France so he could marry Anne of Brittany and making Georges d'Amboise the king's chief advisor the cardinal of Rouen , Cesare was given the duchy of Valentinois chosen because it was consistent with his nickname, Valentino , military assistance to help him subjugate the feudal princelings of papal Romagna,  and a princess bride, Charlotte of Albret from the Kingdom of Navarre.
In spite of the remonstrances of Spain and of the Sforza, he allied himself with France in January and was joined by Venice. With French success seemingly assured, the Pope determined to deal drastically with Romagna, which although nominally under papal rule was divided into a number of practically independent lordships on which Venice, Milan, and Florence cast hungry eyes.
Cesare, empowered by the support of the French, began to attack the turbulent cities one by one in his capacity as nominated gonfaloniere standard bearer of the church.
But the expulsion of the French from Milan and the return of Lodovico Sforza interrupted his conquests, and he returned to Rome early in In the Jubilee year , Alexander ushered in the custom of opening a holy door on Christmas Eve and closing it on Christmas Day the following year.
Peter's Basilica on Christmas Eve , and papal representatives opened the doors in the other three patriarchal basilicas.
For this, Pope Alexander had a new opening created in the portico of St. Peter's and commissioned a marble door. This door lasted until , when another door was installed in the new basilica.
In a ceremony similar to today's, Alexander was carried in the sedia gestatoria to St. He and his assistants, bearing candles, processed to the holy door, as the choir chanted Psalm — The Pope knocked on the door three times, workers moved it from the inside, and everyone then crossed the threshold to enter into a period of penance and reconciliation.
Thus, Pope Alexander formalized the rite and began a longstanding tradition that is still in practice. Similar ceremonies were held at the other three basilicas.
Alexander instituted a special rite for the closing of a holy door, as well. On the Feast of the Epiphany in , two cardinals began to seal the holy door with two bricks, one silver and one gold.
Sampietrini basilica workers [Note 9] completed the seal, placing specially-minted coins and medals inside the wall.
While the enterprising explorers of Spain imposed a form of slavery called " encomienda " on the indigenous peoples they met in the New World,  some popes had spoken out against the practice of slavery.
In , Pope Eugene IV had issued an attack on slavery in the Canary Islands in his papal bull Sicut Dudum , which included the excommunication of all those who engaged in the slave trade with native chiefs there.
A form of indentured servitude was allowed, being similar to a peasant's duty to his liege lord in Europe.
In the wake of Columbus 's landing in the New World, Pope Alexander was asked by the Spanish monarchy to confirm their ownership of these newly found lands.
Thornberry asserts that Inter Caetera was applied in the Requerimiento which was read to American Indians who could not understand the colonisers' language before hostilities against them began.
They were given the option to accept the authority of the Pope and Spanish crown or face being attacked and subjugated. This was followed by a similar appeal in by the Parliament of World Religions.
A danger now arose in the shape of a conspiracy by the deposed despots, the Orsini, and of some of Cesare's own condottieri. At first the papal troops were defeated and things looked bleak for the house of Borgia.
But a promise of French help quickly forced the confederates to come to terms. Cesare, by an act of treachery, then seized the ringleaders at Senigallia and put Oliverotto da Fermo and Vitellozzo Vitelli to death 31 December His goods were confiscated and many other members of the clan in Rome were arrested, while Alexander's son Goffredo Borgia led an expedition into the Campagna and seized their castles.
Thus the two great houses of Orsini and Colonna, who had long fought for predominance in Rome and often flouted the Pope's authority, were subjugated and the Borgias' power increased.
Cesare then returned to Rome, where his father asked him to assist Goffredo in reducing the last Orsini strongholds; this for some reason he was unwilling to do, much to his father's annoyance; but he eventually marched out, captured Ceri and made peace with Giulio Orsini, who surrendered Bracciano.
The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and the Pope was forever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised the most advantageous terms at any moment.
Of Alexander's many mistresses the one for whom passion lasted longest was Vannozza Giovanna dei Cattanei , born in , and wife of three successive husbands.
The connection began in , and she had four children whom he openly acknowledged as his own: Cesare born , Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia commonly known as Juan, born , Lucrezia born , and Gioffre Goffredo in Italian, born or For a period of time, before legitimizing his children after becoming Pope, Rodrigo pretended that his four children with Vannozza were his niece and nephews and that they were fathered by Vannozza's husbands.
Before his elevation to the papacy, Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life.
Her place in his affections was filled, according to some, by the beautiful Giulia Farnese " Giulia la Bella " , wife of an Orsini.
However, he still very dearly loved Vannozza, in a way he considered "spiritual", and his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career.
He lavished vast sums on them and lauded them with every honor. Vannozza lived in the Palace of a late Cardinal, or in a large, palatial villa.
The children lived between their mother's home and the Papal Palace itself. The atmosphere of Alexander's household is typified by the fact that his daughter Lucrezia apparently lived with Giulia at a point.
Giovanni Borgia , 2nd Duke of Gandia. Portrait of Gentleman Cesare Borgia. Presumed portrait of Lucrezia Borgia by Bartolomeo Veneto.
Gioffre Borgia — Prince of Squillace. Four other children, Girolama, Isabella, Pedro-Luiz , and Bernardo, were of uncertain maternal parentage.
His daughter Isabella was the great-great-grandmother of Pope Innocent X , who was therefore descended in a direct line from Alexander. A daughter, Laura, was born to his mistress, Giulia Farnese ; paternity was officially attributed to Orsino Orsini Farnese's husband.
Cesare was preparing for another expedition in August when, after he and his father had dined with Cardinal Adriano Castellesi on 6 August, they were taken ill with fever a few days later.
Cesare, who "lay in bed, his skin peeling and his face suffused to a violet colour"  as a consequence of certain drastic measures to save him, eventually recovered; but the aged Pontiff apparently had little chance.
Burchard's Diary provides a few details of the pope's final illness and death at age . Saturday, 12 August , the Pope fell ill in the morning.
After the hour of vespers, between six and seven o'clock a fever appeared and remained permanently. On 15 August thirteen ounces of blood were drawn from him and the tertian ague supervened.
On Thursday, 17 August, at nine o'clock in the forenoon he took medicine. On Friday, the 18th, between nine and ten o'clock he confessed to the Bishop Gamboa of Carignola, who then read Mass to him.
After his Communion he gave the Eucharist to the Pope who was sitting in bed. The Pope told them that he felt very bad.
At the hour of vespers after Gamboa had given him Extreme Unction, he died. As for his true faults, known only to his confessor, Pope Alexander VI apparently died genuinely repentant.
When at last the pope was suffering from a very severe sickness, he spontaneously requested, one after another, each of the last sacraments.
He first made a very careful confession of his sins, with a contrite heart, and was affected even to the shedding of tears, I am told; then he received in Communion the most Sacred Body and Extreme Unction was administered to him.
The interregnum witnessed again the ancient "tradition" of violence and rioting. The next day the body was exhibited to the people and clergy of Rome, but was covered by an "old tapestry" "antiquo tapete" , having become greatly disfigured by rapid decomposition.
According to Raphael Volterrano : "It was a revolting scene to look at that deformed, blackened corpse, prodigiously swelled, and exhaling an infectious smell; his lips and nose were covered with brown drivel, his mouth was opened very widely, and his tongue, inflated by poison, It has been suggested that, having taken into account the unusual level of decomposition, Alexander VI was accidentally poisoned to death by his son, Cesare, with cantarella which had been prepared to eliminate Cardinal Adriano , although some commentaries doubt these stories and attribute the Pope's death to malaria , then prevalent in Rome, or to another such pestilence.
After a short stay, the body was removed from the crypts of St. Peter's and installed in the less well-known Spanish national church of Santa Maria in Monserrato degli Spagnoli.
Before the death of Alexander VI, Rome was filled with political instability. He desecrated the Holy Church as none before. Sometimes overlooked is the fact that Alexander VI set about reforms of the increasingly irresponsible Curia.
He put together a group of his most pious cardinals in order to move the process along. Planned reforms included new rules on the sale of Church property, the limiting of cardinals to one bishopric, and stricter moral codes for clergy.
Alexander VI was known for his patronage of the arts, and in his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Bramante.
Raphael , Michelangelo and Pinturicchio all worked for him. He took a great interest in theatrics, and he even had the Menaechmi performed in his apartments.
In addition to the arts, Alexander VI also encouraged the development of education. Alexander VI also, in , approved the University of Valencia.
Alexander VI, who was allegedly a marrano according to a black legend of papal rival Giuliano della Rovere , distinguished himself by his relatively benign treatment of Jews.
After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain , some 9, impoverished Iberian Jews arrived at the borders of the Papal States. Alexander welcomed them into Rome, declaring that they were "permitted to lead their life, free from interference from Christians, to continue in their own rites, to gain wealth, and to enjoy many other privileges".
He similarly allowed the immigration of Jews expelled from Portugal in and from Provence in It has been noted that the alleged misdeeds of Alexander VI are similar in nature to those of other Renaissance princes, with the one exception being his position in the Church.
As De Maistre said in his work Du Pape , "The latter are forgiven nothing, because everything is expected from them, wherefore the vices lightly passed over in a Louis XIV become most offensive and scandalous in an Alexander VI.
Epitaphium Alexandri Papae Cui tranquilla quies odio, cui proelia cordi et rixa et caedes seditioque fuit, mortuus hac recubat populis gaudentibus urna pastor Alexander, maxima Roma, tuus.
Vos, Erebi proceres, vos caeli claudite portas atque Animam vestris hanc prohibete locis. In Styga nam veniens pacem turbabit Averni, committet superos, si petat astra poli.
Epitaph to Pope Alexander Who sacrificed quiet to hatred, with a warrior heart, who did not stop at quarrels, struggles and slaughters, is lying here in the coffin for all people to rejoice, thy supreme pontiff Alexander, oh, capital Rome.
Ye prelates of Erebus and Heaven, close your doors and prohibit the Soul from entering your sites. He would disrupt the peace of Styx and disturb Avernus , and vanquish the Saints, if he enters the sphere of stars.
Despite Julius II 's hostility, the Roman barons and Romagna vicars were never again to be the same problem for the papacy and Julius' successes owe much to the foundations laid by the Borgias.
Alexander Lee argues that the crimes attributed to the Borgias were exaggerated by contemporaries because they were outsiders expanding their holdings at the expense of the Italians, that they were Spaniards when it was felt that Spain had too much control on the Italian peninsula, and that after the death of Alexander the family lost its influence and therefore any incentive for anyone to defend them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Rodrigo Borgia. For the Spanish nobleperson, see Rodrigo de Borja Spanish noble. Pope of the Catholic Church — Main article: Papal conclave, Main article: Italian War of — This section needs additional citations for verification.
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April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ancestors of Pope Alexander VI